A Collection of Scientific Inventions & Discoveries

By

HARI KOCHAT

Today’s world is the reaction product of human kind when they adequately admix their motivation, dedication, hard work and unremitting devotion to the things they want to see happen. Everything happened in this world is created twice. First mentally and then physically. The great souls of the past believed their lives as worth living and their beliefs helped to create the facts that we are enjoying today. Their unending discoveries and inventions bring us a valuable message:

If we just hear, we may forget,
If we get to see, we will believe,
If we really do, we will understand,
Thereby we know the price of success.

A collection of such great scientists behind those novel discoveries and inventions to date are listed alphabetically:

Adrenaline(isolation ):                            John Jacob Abel, U.S., 1897.

Aerosol can:                                               Erik Rotheim, Norway, 1926.

Air brake:                                                    George Westinghouse, U.S., 1868.

Air conditioning:                                     Willis Carrier, U.S., 1911.

Airship (non-rigid):                               Henri Giffard, France, 1852; (rigid) Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Germany,                                                                       1900.

Aluminum manufacture

(by electrolytic action):                          Charles M. Hall, U.S., 1866.

Anatomy, human

(an illustrated systematic

study of the human body):                   Andreas Vesalius, 1543

Anesthetic

(first use of anesthetic ether):              Crawford W. Long, U.S., 1842.

Antibiotics

(discovery of penicillin):                       Louis Pasteur, Jules-François Joubert, France, 1887

(Modern antibiotic)                                 Alexander Fleming, England, 1928

Antiseptic: (surgery)                               Joseph Lister, England, 1867.

Antitoxin, diphtheria:                            Emil von Behring, Germany, 1890.

Appliances, electric:                               Fan Schuyler Wheeler, U.S., 1882; Flatiron Henry W. Seely, U.S., 1882

Stove:                                                           Hadaway, U.S., 1896

Washing machine                                   Alva Fisher, U.S., 1906.

Aqualung:                                                  Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Emile Gagnan, France, 1943.

Aspirin:                                                      Dr. Felix Hoffman, Germany, 1899.

Atom:                                                          Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911.

Atomic theory:

(Ancient)                                                   Leucippus, Democritus, Greece, c.500 B.C.E.; Lucretius, Rome c.100                                                                       B.C.E.

(Modern)                                                   John Dalton, England, 1808.

Automobile:

(250 rpm)                                                  Karl Benz, Germany, 1885

(900 rpm)                                                  Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, 1885

Autopilot:                                                 Elmer A. Sperry, U.S., c.1910

Avogadro's law:                                     Amedeo Avogadro, 1811.

Bacteria:                                                    Anton van Leeuwenhoek, The Netherlands, 1683.

Balloon, hot-air:                                      Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, France, 1783.

Bar codes:                                                 Monarch Marking, U.S. 1970

Barometer:                                                Evangelista Torricelli, Italy, 1643.

Bicycle:                                                      Karl D. von Sauerbronn, Germany, 1816

Big Bang theory:                                     Edwin Hubble, U.S., 1929

Blood, circulation:                                 William Harvey, England, 1628.

Boyle's law:                                             Robert Boyle, Ireland, 1662.

Bridges:

(Suspension, iron chains)                   James Finley, Pa., 1800

(Wire suspension)                                 Marc Seguin, Lyons, 1825

Bullet: (conical)                                      Claude Minié, France, 1849.

Calculator:                                               John Napier, Scotland, 1614

(Digital calculator)                                Blaise Pascal, 1642;

Calculus:                                                  Isaac Newton, England, 1669

(Differential calculus)                          Gottfried Leibniz, Germany, 1684.

Camera:

(Hand-held)                                             George Eastman, U.S., 1888

(Polaroid Land)                                       Edwin Land, U.S., 1948.

Carpet sweeper:                                      Melville R. Bissell, U.S., 1876.

Car radio:                                                 William Lear, Elmer Wavering, U.S., 1929

Cells:                                                          Robert Hooke, 1665

(Theory of cells)                                      Theodor Schwann, Matthias Schleiden, 1838–1839.

Cement, Portland:                                   Joseph Aspdin, England, 1724.

Chewing gum:                                         John Curtis, U.S., 1848

Cholera bacterium:                                Robert Koch, Germany, 1883.

Circuit, integrated:                                G.W.A. Dummer, England, 1952

Classification of plants:                      Andrea Cesalpino, 1583;

Clock, pendulum:                                 Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, 1656.

Coca-Cola:                                                John Pemberton, U.S., 1886.

Combustion:                                            Antoine Lavoisier, France, 1777.

Compact disk:                                         RCA, U.S., 1972.

Computer:                                                Vannevar Bush, U.S., 1928

(Digital computer)                                 Howard Aiken, U.S., 1944

Concrete: (reinforced)                            Joseph Monier, France, 1877.

Condensed milk:                                    Gail Borden, U.S., 1853.

Conditioned reflex:                                Ivan Pavlov, Russia, c.1910.

Conservation of electric charge:        Benjamin Franklin, U.S., 1751–1754.

Contagion theory:                                 Girolamo Fracastoro, Italy, 1546.

Continental drift theory:                      Antonio Snider-Pellegrini, 1858.

Contraceptive, oral:                             Gregory Pincus, Min Chuch Chang, John Rock, Carl Djerassi, U.S., 1951.

Converter, Bessemer:                           William Kelly, U.S., 1851.

Cosmetics:                                               Egypt, c.4000 B.C.E.

Cotton gin:                                              Eli Whitney, U.S., 1793.

Crossbow:                                               China, c.300 B.C.E.

Cyclotron:                                               Ernest O. Lawrence, U.S., 1931.

Deuterium:                                             Harold Urey, U.S., 1931.

Disease: (germ theory)                        LouisPasteur, France, 1862–1877.

DNA:                                                        Friedrich Meischer, Germany, 1869

(Double-helical structure)                  Rosalind Elsie Franklin, F. H. Crick, England, James D. Watson, U.S.,                                                                     1953.

Dyes:                                                        William H. Perkin, 1856.

Dynamite:                                                Alfred Nobel, Sweden, 1867.

Electric cooking utensil:                      St. George Lane-Fox, England, 1874.

Electric generator

(Dynamo):                                                Michael Faraday, England, 1832 (Alternating-current generator)                                                                      Nikola Tesla, U.S., 1892.

Electric lamp:                                          Sir Humphrey Davy, England, 1801

(Fluorescent lamp)                                 A.E. Becquerel, France, 1867

(Incandescent lamp)                              Sir Joseph Swann, England, Thomas A. Edison,U.S.

(Widely used incandescent lamp)     Thomas A. Edison, U.S., 1879

(Mercury vapor lamp)                            Peter Cooper Hewitt, U.S., 1903

(Neon lamp)                                              Georges Claude, France, 1911;

(Tungsten filament)                                Irving Langmuir, U.S., 1915.

Electrocardiography:                             Augustus Waller, 1887

Electromagnet:                                         William Sturgeon, England, 1823.

Electron:                                                     Sir Joseph J. Thompson, England, 1897.

Elevator, passenger:                                Elisha G. Otis, U.S., 1852

E = mc2:                                                       Albert Einstein, Switzerland, 1907.

Engine:

(Diesel)                                                         Rudolf Diesel, Germany, 1892

(Rotary)                                                        Felix Wankel, Germany, 1956.

Evolution:

(organic)                                                       Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, 1809

(by natural selection)                               Charles Darwin, England, 1859.

Exclusion principle:                                 Wolfgang Pauli, 1925.

Expanding-

universe theory:                                         George Lemaître, 1927.

Falling bodies, law:                                   Galileo Galilei, Italy, 1590.

Fermentation:                                              Louis Pasteur, France, c.1860.

Fiber optics:                                                 Narinder Kapany, England, 1955.

Fibers:

(Man-made)                                                Sir Joseph Swann, England, 1883

(Rayon)                                                        Count Hilaire de Chardonnet, France, 1889

(Celanese)                                                    Henry and Camille Dreyfuss, U.S., England, 1921 (Nylon) Wallace H.                                                                          Carothers, U.S., 1935.

Frozen food:                                                Clarence Birdseye, U.S. 1924.

Gene transfer: (human)                          Steven Rosenberg, R. Michael Blaese, W. French Anderson, U.S., 1989.

Geometry, elements of:                             Euclid, Alexandria, Egypt, c.300 B.C.E.

(Analytic)                                                    René Descartes, France; and Pierre de Fermat, Switzerland, 1637.

Gravitation, law of:                                  Sir Isaac Newton, England, c.1665 (published 1687).

Gunpowder:                                               China, c.700.

Gyrocompass:                                           Elmer A. Sperry, U.S., 1905.

Gyroscope:                                                 Léon Foucault, France, 1852.

Halley's Comet:                                        Edmund Halley, 1705.

Heart, artificial:                                        Dr. Robert Jarvik, U.S., 1982.

Helicopter:

(Double rotor)                                           Heinrich Focke, Germany, 1936

(Single rotor)                                             Igor Sikorsky, U.S., 1939.

Helium:                                                      Sir Joseph Lockyer, England, 1868.

Heredity, laws of:                                    Gregor Mendel, Austria, 1865.

Holograph:                                                Dennis Gabor, England, 1947.

Home videotape systems

(VCR):

(Betamax)                                                    Sony, Japan, 1975

(VHS)                                                            Matsushita, Japan, 1975.

Ice age theory:                                            Louis Agassiz, 1840.

Induction, electric:                                    Joseph Henry, U.S., 1828.

Insulin:                                                        Sir Frederick G. Banting, J. J. R. MacLeod, Canada, 1922.

Intelligence testing:                                  Alfred Binet, Theodore Simon, France, 1905.

Interferon:                                                   Alick Isaacs, Jean Lindemann, England, Switzerland, 1957.

Isotopes:

(Concept of)                                                Frederick Soddy, England, 1912

(Stable isotopes)                                         J. J. Thompson, England, 1913

(mass spectrography)                              Francis W. Ashton, 1919

Jet propulsion:

(Engine)                                                       Sir Frank Whittle, England, Hans von Ohain, Germany, 1936

(Aircraft)                                                      Heinkel He 178, 1939.

Kinetic theory of gases:                           Daniel Bernoulli, 1738.

Laser:                                                           Charles H. Townes, Arthur L. Schawlow, U.S., N. Basov, A.                                                                         Prokhorov, U.S.S.R., 1958

(First working model)                              T. H. Maiman, U.S., 1960.

Lawn mower:                                             Edwin Budding, John Ferrabee, England, 1830–1831.

LCD:                                                             Hoffmann-La Roche, Switzerland, 1970.

Lens, bifocal:                                              Benjamin Franklin, U.S., c.1760.

Leyden jar:                                                  Canon E. G. von Kleist of Kamin, Pomerania, 1745

Light, nature of:

(Wave theory)                                            Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, 1678

(Electromagnetic theory)                         James Clerk Maxwell, England, 1873.

Light, speed of:                                          Olaus Roemer, Denmark, 1675.

Lightning rod:                                           Benjamin Franklin, U.S., 1752.

Locomotive:                                                Richard Trevithick, England, 1804

Lock, cylinder:                                           Linus Yale, U.S., 1851.

Machine gun:                                             James Puckle, England, 1718

Magnet, Earth is:                                       William Gilbert, 1600.

Match:

(Phosphorus)                                             François Derosne, France, 1816

(Friction)                                                     Charles Sauria, France, 1831

(Safety)                                                         J. E. Lundstrom, Sweden, 1855.

Measles vaccine:                                       John F. Enders, Thomas Peebles, U.S., 1953.

Metric system:                                           Revolutionary government of France, 1790–1801.

Microphone:                                             Charles Wheatstone, England, 1827.

Microscope:

(Compound)                                              Zacharias Janssen, The Netherlands, 1590

(Electron)                                                    Vladimir Zworykin et al., U.S., Canada, Germany, 1932–1939.

Microwave oven:                                      Percy Spencer, U.S., 1947.

Motion, laws of:                                        Isaac Newton, England, 1687.

Motion pictures:                                       Thomas A. Edison, U.S., 1893.

Motion pictures, sound:                         Don Juan, 1926; with spoken dialogue: The Jazz Singer, 1927; both                                                                         Warner Bros.

Motor, electric:                                          Michael Faraday, England, 1822; (alternating-current) Nikola Tesla,                                                                         U.S., 1892.

Motorcycle:                                                Edward Butler, England, 1884; (gasoline-engine motorcycle) Gottlieb                                                                        Daimler, Germany, 1885.

Neptune:                                                    Johann Galle, 1846.

Neptunium:                                              Edward M. McMillan, Philip H. Abelson, U.S., 1940.

Neutron:                                                     James Chadwick, England, 1932.

Neutron-

Induced radiation:                                 Enrico Fermi et al., Italy, 1934.

Nitroglycerin:                                          Ascanio Sobrero, Italy, 1846.

Nuclear fission:                                      Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, Germany, 1938.

Nuclear reactor:                                      Enrico Fermi, et al., 1942.

Ohm's law:                                               Georg S. Ohm, Germany, 1827.

Oil well:                                                     Edwin L. Drake, U.S., 1859.

Oxygen:                                                      Joseph Priestley, 1774; Carl Scheele, 1773.

Ozone:                                                        Christian Schönbein, Germany, 1839.

Pacemaker: (internal)                            Clarence W. Lillehie, Earl Bakk, U.S., 1957.

Paper:                                                         China, c.100 C.E.

Parachute:                                                 Louis S. Lenormand, France, 1783.

Pen: (fountain)                                        Lewis E. Waterman, U.S., 1884; (ball-point, for marking on rough                                                                       surfaces) John H. Loud, U.S.,

1888; (ball-pointpen)                             Lazlo Biro, Argentina, 1944.

Periodic law:                                            Dmitri Mendeleev, Russia, 1869.

Periodic table:                                          Dmitri Mendeleev, Russia, 1869.

Phonograph:                                            Thomas A. Edison, U.S., 1877.

Photography:                                           Joseph Nicéphore Niepce, France, 1816–1827;

Photovoltaic effect:                                Edmund Becquerel, France, 1839.

Piano: (Hammerklavier)                      Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italy, 1709; .

Planetary motion, laws of:                   Johannes Kepler, Germany, 1609, 1619.

Plant respiration and

photosynthesis:                                     Jan Ingenhousz, 1779.

Plastics:                                                   Alexander Parkes, England, 1855;

Plate tectonics:                                      Alfred Wegener, Germany, 1912–1915.

Plow, forked:                                         Mesopotamia, before 3000 B.C.E.

Plutonium, synthesis of:                   Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, Arthur C. Wahl, Joseph W.                                                                    Kennedy, U.S., 1941.

Polio, vaccine against:

(vaccine made from

dead virus strains)                               Jonas E. Salk, U.S., 1954

(vaccine made from

live virus strains)                                 Albert Sabin, U.S., 1960.

Positron:                                                 Carl D. Anderson, U.S., 1932.

Pressure cooker: (early version)       Denis Papin, France, 1679.

Printing: (block)                                    Japan, c.700

(movable type)                                      Korea, c.1400; Johann Gutenberg, Germany, c.1450

(rotary press)                                        Richard Hoe, U.S., 1844

Probability theory:                              René Descartes, France; and Pierre de Fermat, Switzerland, 1654.

Proton:                                                   Ernest Rutherford, England, 1919.

Psychoanalysis:                                  Sigmund Freud, Austria, c.1904.

Pulsars:                                                  Jocelyn Bell Bunnell, England, 1968.

Quantum theory: (general)               Max Planck, Germany, 1900

(sub-atomic)                                          Niels Bohr, Denmark, 1913;

(quantum mechanics)                       Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Germany, 1925.

Quarks:                                                   Jerome Friedman, Henry Kendall, Richard Taylor, U.S., 1967.

Quasars:                                                Marten Schmidt, U.S., 1963.

Rabies immunization:                       Louis Pasteur, France, 1885.

Radar:                                                    Christian Hulsmeyer, Germany, 1904

Radio:

(electromagnetism, theory of)          James Clerk Maxwell, England, 1873

(spark coil, generator of

electromagnetic waves)                    Heinrich Hertz, Germany, 1886

(first practical system of

wireless telegraphy)                          Guglielmo Marconi, Italy, 1895

Radioactivity: (X-rays)                     Wilhelm K. Roentgen, Germany, 1895; Henri Becquerel, France, 1896;                                                                    Marie Sklodowska-Curie, Pierre Curie, France, 1898

(gamma radiation)                          Paul-Ulrich Villard, France, 1900

(carbon dating)                                Willard F. Libby et al., U.S., 1955.

Radio signals,

extraterrestrial:                                U.S. engineer, Karl Jansky, originating from the Galactic Center, 1931.

Radio waves:                                   Karl Jansky, U.S., 1932.

Razor:                                                King Gillette, U.S., 1901; (electric) Jacob Schick, U.S., 1928, 1931.

Reaper:                                              Cyrus McCormick, U.S., 1834.

Refrigerator:                                     Alexander Twining, U.S., James Harrison, Australia, 1850; (first with a                                                               compressor device) the Domelse, Chicago, U.S., 1913.

Relativity:                                         Albert Einstein, Switzerland, Germany, U.S., 1905–1953.

Revolver:                                           Samuel Colt, U.S., 1835.

Richter scale:                                    Charles F. Richter, U.S., 1935.

Rifle: (muzzle-loaded)                   Italy, Germany, c.1475

(breech-loaded)                               England, France, Germany, U.S., c.1866;

(bolt-action)                                      Paul von Mauser, Germany, 1889

(automatic)                                        John Browning, U.S., 1918.

Rocket: (liquid-fueled)                   Robert Goddard, U.S., 1926.

Roller bearing:

(wooden for cartwheel)                 Germany or France, c.100 B.C.E.

Rotation of earth:                             Jean Bernard Foucault, France, 1851.

Rubber:

(vulcanization process)                Charles Goodyear, U.S., 1839.

Saccharin:                                         Constantine Fuhlberg, Ira Remsen, U.S., 1879.

Safety pin:                                         Walter Hunt, U.S., 1849.

"Scotch" tape:                                   Richard Drew, U.S., 1929.

Screw propeller:                              Sir Francis P. Smith, England, 1836

Seismograph:                                   John Milne, England, 1880.

Sewing machine:                            Elias Howe, U.S., 1846; (continuous stitch) Isaac Singer, U.S., 1851.

Solar energy:                                     John Ericsson, U.S., 1860s.

Solar system, universe:  

(sun-centered universe)                Nicolaus Copernicus, Warsaw, 1543

Spectrum:

(heterogeneity of light)                  Sir Isaac Newton, England, 1665–1666.

Spectrum analysis:                         Gustav Kirchhoff, Robert Bunsen, Germany, 1859.

Spermatozoa:                                    Anton van Leeuwenhoek, The Netherlands, 1683.

Spinning: (spinning wheel)         India, introduced to Europe in Middle Ages

Steam engine:                                   Thomas Savery, England, 1639

Steamship:                                        Claude de Jouffroy d'Abbans, France, 1783; James Rumsey, U.S., 1787

Stethoscope:                                      René Laënnec, France, 1819.

Sulfa drugs:                                      Paul Gelmo, Austria, 1908

Superconductivity: (theory)         Bardeen, Cooper, Scheiffer, U.S., 1957.

Tank, military:                                 Sir Ernest Swinton, England, 1914.

Tape recorder:

(magnetic steel tape)                      Valdemar Poulsen, Denmark, 1899.

Teflon:                                                DuPont, U.S., 1943.

Telegraph:                                        Samuel F. B. Morse, U.S., 1837.

Telephone:                                        Alexander Graham Bell, U.S., 1876.

Telescope:                                          Hans Lippershey, The Netherlands, 1608; (astronomical) Galileo Galilei,                                                                Italy, 1609

Television:

(Icono-scop-T.V. camera table)    Vladimir Zworkin, U.S., 1923.

Thermodynamics:                          Julius von Mayer, Germany, 1842; James Joule, England, 1843

(second law)                                    Rudolph Clausius, Germany, 1850

(third law)                                        Walter Nernst, Germany, 1918.

Thermometer: (open-column)   Galileo Galilei, c.1593

(clinical)                                            Santorio Santorio, Padua, c.1615

(mercury, also

Fahrenheit scale)                           Gabriel D. Fahrenheit, Germany, 1714

(centigrade scale)                         Anders Celsius, Sweden, 1742;

( Kelvin, scale)                               William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, England, 1848.

Tire, pneumatic:                           Robert W. Thompson, England, 184

(bicycle tire)                                   John B. Dunlop, Northern Ireland, 1888.

Toilet, flush:                                  Product of Minoan civilization, Crete, c.2000 B.C.E. Alleged invention by

                                                           "Thomas Crapper" is untrue. Tractor: Benjamin Holt, U.S., 1900.

Transformer, electric:                  William Stanley, U.S., 1885.

Transistor:                                      John Bardeen, William Shockley, Walter Brattain, U.S., 1948.

Tuberculosis bacterium:            Robert Koch, Germany, 1882.

Typewriter:                                    Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, U.S., 1867.

Uncertainty principle:                Werner Heisenberg, Germany, 1927.

Uranus:                                           William Herschel, England, 1781.

Vaccination:                                   Edward Jenner, England, 1796.

Vacuum cleaner:

(manually operated)                    Ives W. McGaffey, 1869

(electric)                                           Hubert C. Booth, England, 1901; (upright) J. Murray Spangler, U.S., 1907.

Vitamins:                                        Sir F. G. Hopkins, Casimir Funk, England, 1912

(vitamin A)                                     Elmer V. McCollum, M. Davis, U.S., 1912–1914

(vitamin B)                                      McCollum, U.S1915–1916

(thiamin, B1)                                   Casimir Funk, England, 1912

(riboflavin, B2)                               D.T. Smith, E. G. Hendrick, U.S., 1926

(niacin)                                            Conrad Elvehjem, U.S., 1937

(B6)                                                    Paul Gyorgy, U.S., 1934

(vitamin C)                                       C. A. Hoist, T. Froelich, Norway, 1912 

(vitamin D)                                       McCollum, U.S., 1922

(folic acid)                                         Lucy Wills, England, 1933.

Voltaic pile:                                     Alessandro Volta, 1800.

Wallpaper:                                       Europe, 16th and 17th century.

Wassermann test:

(for syphilis)                                   August von Wassermann, Germany, 1906.

Wheel: (cart, solid wood)           Mesopotamia, c.3800–3600 B.C.E.

Windmill:                                       Persia, c.600.

Xerography:                                   Chester Carlson, U.S., 1938.

Zero:                                                 India, c.600

(absolute zero temperature)      William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, England, 1848.

Zipper:                                             W.L. Judson, U.S., 1891.


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